Results from the labour force survey show that in most families, only women take the opportunity to take parental leave or reduce their working hours to care for children.
Nonetheless, female employment patterns have changed fundamentally in the last decades. The difference between male and female employment rates has decreased from 23.8 percentage points in 1994 to 10.7 percentage points in 2020. However, when children below the age of 15 live in the household, the difference in the labour market participation of men and women widens: In 2020, 90.9 per cent of men and 67.7 per cent of women with children below 15 were actively participating in the labour market - resulting in a gap of 23.2 percentage points. Nevertheless, this gap has narrowed significantly over the last decades: In 1994, only 52.4 per cent of women but 94.5 per cent of men with children below 15 years were employed, creating a gap of 42.1 percentage points.
Although employment of women has increased significantly since 1994, part-time employment dominates female career paths – especially those of women with small children. The share of women with children below 15 years working part-time only expanded from 39.1 per cent in 1994 to 72.3 per cent in 2020. Thus, total hours worked have not increased with the same speed as employment rates.
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