The fundamental idea of a NAMEA (“National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts”) is to highlight the impacts of societal action on the environment. To this end the classifications of economic and environment-related data have to be adjusted to enable a direct comparison of parameters from both domains. Using a standardized classification of industries (OENACE classification) and households, economic indicators such as the production value or labour force can be linked to environmental material flows and/or environmental expenditure of a given branch. With regard to sustainable development, the goal is to attribute the external environmental and social costs to the perpetrators. Comparisons such as these shift the focus from economic results to environmentally relevant data.
In its simplest form a NAMEA refers to a specific environmental aspect, e.g. air emissions. In contrast an integrated NAMEA is a complex model comprising data of several environmental domains, which are compared with economic parameters.
The economic accounts of the Austrian integrated NAMEA comprise production value, gross value added and labour force in full-time equivalences. The environmental data consist of the modules material input, energy consumption, air emissions, environmental protection expenditure (for protection of ambient air and climate, and for waste management), environmental taxes and wastes.
Between 1995 and 2016 the material input increased by 9.5%. Compared to the development of gross value added this rise was less pronounced and therefore a certain decoupling was registered. In 2016 the material input consisted to 55.6% of mineral materials, to 28.6% of biomass as well as to 15.9% of fossil materials. Domestic demand could be covered in the case of mineral materials to 75.2% by domestic resources, whereas the level of self supply was lower for biomass (60.6%) and very low for fossil materials (8.6%). Energy consumption increased by 13.9% between 1995 and 2016, while gross value added rose by 46.8%. The consequence was a distinct relative decoupling of economic growth from energy consumption. The ultimate goal should be an absolute decoupling, i.e. economic growth accompanied by declining energy consumption. Energy consumption was dominated by non renewable energy carriers whose share decreased from 73.0% to 61.4% between 1995 and 2016, while renewable energy carriers (from a share of 14.5% to 22.1%) became more and more important and the other non emission relevant energy carriers (from a share of 12.6% to 16.5%) slightly increased as well. Environmental protection expenditures are available for the period 1997 to 2016. The expenses for protection of ambient air and climate rose by 17.8%, those for waste management by 62.7%. Between 1995 and 2016 environmental taxes increased by 116.5% overall. The most significant groups were energy and transport taxes, also making the greatest contribution to the increment.
For emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases reference is made to the above mentioned Air Emissions Accounts.
A comparison of hazardous wastes is not possible due to changes in the legal regulations and the breaks in time series resulting from this. The lowest quantity was registered in 2005 (913.000 t). Data for non-hazardous wastes only exist for 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016. In 2016 it amounted to 60.0 mio. t.
|Integrated NAMEA 1995 - 2016 - Results (overview)|
|Integrated NAMEA 1995 - 2016 - Results for economic branches and private households|
|Integrated NAMEA 1995 - 2016 - Hazardous and non-hazardous wastes|
|Integrated NAMEA 1995 - 2016 – Comparison of energy consumption according to residence and territory principle|
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